The user requests a protected resource from the web application, the application server requires that the user supplies a SAML token that asserts they are authenticated and that they have the necessary rights to the application. The identity provider requires that the user be authenticated too and this takes place perhaps via Kerberos or some other means. Once the Identity Provider is satisfied that the user is authenticated it request metadata about the user to satisfy the assertion requirements of the Service Provider SP.
It then builds the token and sends it back to the browser. Who then again talks to the application server forwarding it his token. If the assertions stored in the token satisfy the web applications security requirements the user is then authorised to access the application.
My initial reaction was to try and use the one developed by Apache since I was going to use it with another Apache tool i.SPNEGO
The valve is called FederationAuthenticator. However after many trials and tribulations including running Tomcat with a debugger attached, I found that SAML was not supported for SSO because unfortunately the code contains a bug. In the SAMLProcessorImpl there is a method called processRelayState that checks if the requestState parameter is null however a couple of calls up the stack in the SigninHandler processSigninRequest method instead of retrieving the FedizRequest object from the restored Request a new one is created that does not, unfortunately, set the requestState property of the FedizRequest.
This time, things went a little bit better, as in it worked. Picketlink is pretty much aimed at JBoss users so the documentation for use with Tomcat is quite limited. For the simple configuration, we are putting together here, you will only need 6 jar files. The required jars are:. Note there is no need for a Realm to be specified in the server. Here is where all the magic is. The trust section contains a list of domains for which the there is a trust relationship.
Here we can see that there is a Trust Handler which verifies the rules in the trust section are met, in this case, the domains. There is also a Log Out Handler for un-authenticating the user. An Authentication Handler that checks the validity of the SAML token verifies the Subject the user is authenticated and finally that the user has the roles necessary.
If this isn't supplied unfortunately the library doesn't seem to have an intelligent default because it includes everything as a role including the users email address and username. The serviceURL in your picketlink. Make absolutely certain that your clocks are synchronized properly. I lost quite a lot of time because my tomcat server was 20 seconds behind my identity server, this resulted in the tokens not yet being valid when they were received but the error reported was that the token had expired.
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An example of single sign on using IIS
Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. Means, user authenticated to a Microsoft Windows system are automatically logged in to kerberized web applications. For a lot of other use cases it doesn't fit at all.
There is no general "best way" when it comes to SSO for web applications, but maybe one that fits best for your specific requirements. Maybe you can explaing them in a bit more detail? Look here. You need to extend this valve to make it meet your custom requirement.
If you need help, let me know. Authenticating agains a Kerberos Server. Learn more. Asked 9 years, 10 months ago. Active 5 years, 5 months ago. Viewed 7k times. How the best way to create a single sign-on for many JSP applications using Tomcat server? Victor Victor 7, 14 14 gold badges 71 71 silver badges bronze badges. Active Oldest Votes. Nice answer, I will try on this way. BTW the Tomcat 5.
You can't always get what you want. If all of the apps are on a single instance, the Tomcat SSO solution is the most painless, assuming you can work well with container based security. Have you looked at Tomcat valve? Anirban Mukherji Anirban Mukherji 4 4 bronze badges.
Pablo Santa Cruz Pablo Santa Cruz k 29 29 gold badges silver badges bronze badges.If this property is false the defaultthis Valve will bind a UserPrincipal and AuthType to the request if a valid SSO entry is associated with the request. It will not notify the security Realm of the incoming request.
This property should be set to true if the overall server configuration requires that the Realm reauthenticate each request thread. An example of such a configuration would be one where the Realm implementation provides security for both a web tier and an associated EJB tier, and needs to set security credentials on each request thread in order to support EJB access. If this property is set to truethis Valve will set flags on the request notifying the downstream Authenticator that the request is associated with an SSO session.
The Authenticator will then call its reauthenticateFromSSO method to attempt to reauthenticate the request to the Realmusing any credentials that were cached with this Valve. The default value of this property is falsein order to maintain backward compatibility with previous versions of Tomcat.
Parameters: required - true if it is required that a downstream Authenticator reauthenticate each request before calls to HttpServletRequest. See Also: AuthenticatorBase. String, org. If reauthentication is successful, the Principal and authorization type associated with the SSO session will be bound to the given Request object via calls to Request.
The SSO entry will then be usable for reauthentication. Parameters: ssoId - identifier of Single sign to be updated principal - the Principal returned by the latest call to Realm. Called when a session is timed out and no longer active. Parameters: ssoId - Single sign on identifier from which to remove the session.
All Rights Reserved. Object org. LifecycleBase org. LifecycleMBeanBase org. ValveBase org. For successful use, the following requirements must be met: This Valve must be configured on the Container that represents a virtual host typically an implementation of Host. The Realm that contains the shared user and role information must be configured on the same Container or a higher oneand not overridden at the web application level.
The web applications themselves must use one of the standard Authenticators found in the org. Lifecycle Lifecycle. Deregister the specified single sign on identifier, and invalidate any associated sessions. Gets whether each request needs to be reauthenticated by an Authenticator downstream in the pipeline to the security Realmor if this Valve can itself bind security info to the request based on the presence of a valid SSO entry without rechecking with the Realm.
Attempts reauthentication to the given Realm using the credentials associated with the single sign-on session identified by argument ssoId.It is a mechanism by which an authenticating body negotiates with the authenticator what security protocol to use, for example Kerberos, NTLM, Digest, or Basic. Authentication is the act of verifying a user is who they say they are.
Whereas authorization is the act of verifying that the user has sufficient permissions to access the data they are requesting. The difference is quite important so I wanted to introduce it early on. Single Sign-on in Tomcat is handled as a two step process. First authentication is handled by a valve component. A valve component is an element in the request processing chain. And then the authorization is handled by the Realm.
The Realm is essentially a user database that contains a collection of usernames, groups and their associated roles. When you logon to a computer you are authenticating with either that local machine or some central server. Under normal circumstances if you then try and connect to an internal web application, that requires you be a user with certain rights, you would be prompted to login.
However in the case of single sign-on this should all be transparent. When they try to connect to the Tomcat server the authentication mechanism is negotiated and their token is passed to Tomcat who then verifies it with the KDC. Once they have been authenticated Tomcat then retrieves their roles from the LDAP server in the case of Windows the Active Directory and decides if they have access to the resource they have requested on the server.
Both the user and the Tomcat server have their own TGT token credential associated with their identity. In the sequence diagram you can see outlined the division of responsibility between the Tomcat valve and the Tomcat realm. The valve is taking care of the authentications and the realm is taking care of the authorizations. Some internal interactions have been excluded to reduce the complexity of the diagram in particular related to Pre-Authentication Data PADATA which is used as part of the key sharing mechanism.
TGT exists so users don't have to enter their password every time they wish to connect to a kerberized service, or keep a copy of their password around. If the TGT is compromised, an attacker can only masquerade as a user until the ticket expires.
After authentication, this file is granted to a user e. Tomcat, end user for data traffic protection by the key distribution center KDC. The TGT file contains the session key, its expiration date, and the user's IP address, which protects the user from man-in-the-middle attacks.Add a new web site for each i-lign instance. Your users should now be able to transparently authenticate to i-lign without seeing a login form. It is still possible to connect a browser to the Tomcat HTTP ports eg and login via a password from the i-lign account database.
This is a useful alternative for users outside your domain, or for troubleshooting connectivity problems. In some cases very large authorization packets with sizes of more than 8K are generated i. The default packet size is and maximum size is which defines the size of packets exchanged between IIS and Tomcat in bytes.
You may need some extra configuration steps for browsers like Firefox or Chrome to trust the authentication negotiation protocols over a non SSL connection. Contact us if that is the case. An example of single sign on using IIS. Note: Microsoft Edge is not supported for single sign on Prerequisites This example assumes you already have the following in place; A Windows or R2 server that is a member of your Active Directory.
This example assumes your Active Directory domain is named example. You will need full administration rights on this server. NET Framework 3. The server should have one or more Tomcat services installed each successfully running a different i-lign instance. This example uses two instances, but should easily work with any number. For this example we will use ilignproduction.
Recommended extras We recommend you install a good text editor that can highlight syntax when editing XML files. Create an empty subdirectory in each instances Tomcat directory to act as the physical path for an IIS web site we will create later.
In this example we will name the subdirectory iis-site. Configure the AJP connector of each instance to listen only on localhost and to trust IIS to authenticate incoming requests. For each i-lign instance, log in as a superuser and configure the security realms for single sign on.
We will change the AJP port for other instances later. Accept the defaults for Settings Options. When asked whether All sites or just specific sites should be made available, choose specific sites.
Select the i-lign Production and i-lign Testing sites, and deselect any non i-lign sites eg the Default Web Site. This is required so that any additional i-lign instances can have unique AJP ports.
Finish the installation. Change the AJP port in each i-lign web site to match its Tomcat port number.
If asked previously, now would be a good time to restart the server. Wrapping up Your users should now be able to transparently authenticate to i-lign without seeing a login form. Troubleshooting intermittant Connection Errors In some cases very large authorization packets with sizes of more than 8K are generated i. Copyright ci-lign Ltd; all rights reserved.Are customer of mine asked advice to enable single-sign-on in his J2EE application.
Currently they have multiple applications running in their own tomcat server. As usual there is no one size fits all. Solution 0: Do It Yourself Security is dangers and only done right by good people. Just kidding But it seems that Tomcat itself did not implement it, but Jboss extended it. Pro: Removes the need for clustering of doing your own authentication Cons: users are managed elsewhere, a new critical component if proxy is down, no site is availablerouting traffic over the internet is not adviced: A proxy will be at one location and needs to fetch data from another application Solution 4: Tomcat with agents of a dedicated SSO solution Every large vendor has started to create it's own SSO solution.
In essence it often consists of a dedicated application for authentication which has multiple plugins for authentication schemas and allows you to create sessions and has a slick UI for managing rules and users. Pro: if you are familiar with filters and deploying war files most things should come out of the box. Cons: vendor lock in; well not really but you are installing agents and become dependent on the API provide.
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So choose wise. Patrick Debois Independent IT-consultant Bridging the gap between projects and operations by using Agile techniques both in developmentproject management and system administration.
Home Blog Contact About. Presentations Customers.In this case, you should use your browser to log on to the service, and check for a HTTPS connection in the status bar. It's good practice to enable two-factor authentication on services that support it, such as Gmail, Twitter and Facebook. This way, even if someone does manage to sniff out your password when on public Wi-Fi, you have an added layer of protection.
On the topic of passwords, try not to use the same password across multiple services. There are plenty of password managers available to make your life easier -- here are six of our favorites.
Once you are all done with your Web browsing, make sure to log off any services you were signed into. Then, tell your device to forget the network. This means that your phone or PC won't automatically connect again to the network if you're in range.
Click on "Wireless Properties" and then uncheck "Connect automatically when this network is in range. Then uncheck "Remember networks this computer has joined. In Android, you can do this by entering into your Wi-Fi network list, long press the network name and select "Forget Network. Finally, be very careful with what you do on public unsecured Wi-Fi.
It's best to save that Internet banking session for when you're able to connect via cellular data, or on a secure network. Editors' Note:This post was originally published August 20, 2014, and has been updated. By learning about the signs and symptoms of smartphone and Internet addiction and the ways to break free of the habit, you can better balance your life, online and off. Addiction to social networking, dating apps, texting, and messaging can extend to the point where virtual, online friends become more important than real-life relationships.
While the Internet can be a great place to meet new people, reconnect with old friends, or even start romantic relationships, online relationships are not a healthy substitute for real life interactions. Online friends tend to exist in a bubble, not subject to the same demands or stresses as messy real-world relationships.
Since few real-life relationships can compete with these neat, virtual relationships, you may find yourself spending more and more time with online friends, retreating from your real world family and friends. Compulsive use of dating apps can change your focus to short-term hookups instead of developing long-term relationships. Online compulsions, such as gaming, gambling, stock trading, online shopping, or bidding on auction sites like eBay can often lead to financial and job-related problems.
While gambling addiction has been a well-documented problem for years, the availability of Internet gambling has made gambling far more accessible. Compulsive stock trading or online shopping can be just as financially and socially damaging.
Compulsive web surfing, watching videos, playing games, searching Google, or checking news feeds can lead to lower productivity at work or school and isolate you for hours at a time.
All this compulsive use of the Internet and smartphone apps can cause you to neglect other aspects of your life, from real-world relationships to hobbies and social pursuits.
Compulsive use of Internet pornography, sexting, nude-swapping, adult chat rooms, or messaging services can impact negatively on your real-life intimate relationships and overall emotional health.
While online pornography and cybersex addictions are types of sexual addiction, the Internet makes it more accessible, relatively anonymous, and very convenient. Excessive use of sex and dating apps that facilitate casual sex can make it more difficult to develop long-term intimate relationships or damage an existing relationship. While you can experience these impulse-control problems with a laptop or even desktop computer, the size and convenience of smartphones and tablets means that we can take them just about anywhere and gratify our compulsions.
In fact, studies suggest that most of us are rarely ever more than five feet from our smartphones. So what causes our obsession with these always-connected devices. Smartphones, tablets, or the Internet can be addictive because their use, just like the use of drugs and alcohol, can trigger the release of the brain chemical dopamine and alter mood. And just like using drugs and alcohol, you can rapidly build up tolerance so that it takes more and more time in front of these screens to derive the same pleasurable reward.
While heavy phone use can often be symptomatic of other underlying problemssuch as stress, anxiety, depression, or lonelinessit can also exacerbate these problems. Staring at your phone will deny you the face-to-face interactions that can help to meaningfully connect you to others, alleviate anxiety, and boost your mood. Increasing loneliness and depression. While it may seem that losing yourself online will temporarily make feelings such as loneliness, depression, and boredom evaporate into thin air, it can actually make you feel even worse.
A 2014 study found a correlation between high social media usage and depression and anxiety. Users, especially teens, tend to compare themselves unfavorably with their peers on social media, promoting feelings of loneliness and depression.