Case citation is a system used by legal professionals to identify past court case decisions, either in series of books called reporters or law reportsor in a neutral style that identifies a decision regardless of where it is reported.
Case citations are formatted differently in different jurisdictionsbut generally contain the same key information. A legal citation is a "reference to a legal precedent or authority, such as a case, statute, or treatise, that either substantiates or contradicts a given position. In some report series, for example in England, Australia and some in Canada, volumes are not numbered independently of the year: thus the year and volume number usually no greater than 4 are required to identify which book of the series has the case reported within its covers.
In such citations, it is usual in these jurisdictions to apply square brackets "[year]" to the year which may not be the year that the case was decided: for example, a case decided in December may have been reported in The Internet brought with it the opportunity for courts to publish their decisions on websites and most published court decisions now appear in that way.
The resulting flood of non-paginated information has led to numbering of paragraphs and the adoption of a medium-neutral citation system. This usually contains the following information:. Rather than utilizing page numbers for pinpoint references, which would depend upon particular printers and browserspinpoint quotations refer to paragraph numbers.
In common law countries with an adversarial system of justice, the names of the opposing parties are separated in the case title by the abbreviation v usually written as v in Commonwealth countries and always as v. When case titles are read out loud, the v can be pronounced, depending on the context, as andagainstversusor vee.
Some Commonwealth countries [ which? In the United States, there is no consensus on the pronunciation of the abbreviation v. This has led to much confusion about the pronunciation and spelling of court cases: . During oral arguments in Planned Parenthood v. Caseythe participants demonstrated the lack of consensus by using different pronunciations of v. Solicitor General Ken Starr even managed to use all three of the most common American pronunciations interchangeably: .
Kenneth W. Starr : This is the process of analysis that is quite familiar to the Court, very lengthily laid out by Justice Harlan in his dissent in Poe versus Ullman, and then adumbrated in his concurring opinion in Griswold against Connecticut.
Well, I think that that is the necessary consequence of Roe vee Wade. Legal citation in Australia generally mirrors the methods of citation used in England. As in Canada, there has been divergence among citation styles. There exist commercial citation guides published by Butterworths and other legal publishing companies, academic citation styles and court citation styles.
Each court in Australia may cite the same case slightly differently. There is presently a movement in convergence to the comprehensive academic citation style of the Australian Guide to Legal Citation published jointly by the Melbourne University Law Review and the Melbourne Journal of International Law. Australian courts and tribunals have now adopted a neutral citation standard for case law.
The format provides a naming system that does not depend on the publication chime direct deposit holiday delay the case in a law report. Most cases are now published on AustLII using neutral citations. There is a unique court identifier code for most courts. The court and tribunal identifiers include:.
There are a number of citation standards in Canada. Many legal publishing companies and schools have their own standard for citation.
The following format reflects this standard:.Regolamento di attuazione della legge regionale 20 giugnon. Si intende per residenza della famiglia la sua residenza anagrafica. Tale percentuale di incidenza non viene applicata ai richiedenti il cui indicatore della situazione reddituale sia inferiore o uguale a euro 7. Il contributo regionale alla libera scelta educativa viene concesso per ogni alunno e prioritariamente alle famiglie il cui indicatore della situazione reddituale sia inferiore o uguale a euro 7.
Le risorse che risultassero ancora da destinare una volta esaurita la graduatoria saranno utilizzate secondo le indicazioni della Giunta regionale. Ai sensi del comma 3 della l. Regolamento regionale pubblicato sul Bollettino Ufficiale n.
Destinatari 1. Spese scolastiche ammissibili 1.How to Slav your car - How to be slav
Indicatore della situazione reddituale Percentuale copertura spesa scolastica ammissibile Contributo massimo erogabile per figlio Scuola elementare Scuola media Scuola Superiore Minore uguale a Euro 7. Abrogazione 1. Numero componenti nucleo familiare. Indicatore della situazione reddituale. Percentuale copertura spesa scolastica ammissibile.
Contributo massimo erogabile per figlio.Background: Higher intake of marine n-3 also called omega-3 fatty acids has been associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and cancer in several observational studies. Whether supplementation with n-3 fatty acids has such effects in general populations at usual risk for these end points is unclear. Methods: We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, with a two-by-two factorial design, of vitamin D 3 at a dose of IU per day and marine n-3 fatty acids at a dose of 1 g per day in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer among men 50 years of age or older and women 55 years of age or older in the United States.
Primary end points were major cardiovascular events a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes and invasive cancer of any type.
Secondary end points included individual components of the composite cardiovascular end point, the composite end point plus coronary revascularization expanded composite of cardiovascular eventssite-specific cancers, and death from cancer. Safety was also assessed. This article reports the results of the comparison of n-3 fatty acids with placebo. Results: A total of 25, participants, including black participants, underwent randomization.
Marine n-3 Fatty Acids and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer
During a median follow-up of 5. Invasive cancer was diagnosed in participants in the n-3 group and in in the placebo group hazard ratio, 1. In the analyses of key secondary end points, the hazard ratios were as follows: for the expanded composite end point of cardiovascular events, 0. In the analysis of death from any cause deaths overallthe hazard ratio was 1. No excess risks of bleeding or other serious adverse events were observed. Conclusions: Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids did not result in a lower incidence of major cardiovascular events or cancer than placebo.
Abstract Background: Higher intake of marine n-3 also called omega-3 fatty acids has been associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and cancer in several observational studies. Substances Fatty Acids, Omega Associated data ClinicalTrials.News Newsroom. VBID Newsletter. Journals About. The American Journal of Managed Care. The American Journal of Accountable Care. Evidence-Based Oncology. Evidence-Based Diabetes Management. Compendia Alternative Payment Models.
Breast Cancer. Clinical Pathways. Glucose Monitoring. Heart Failure. Leukemia and Lymphoma. Multiple Sclerosis. Pain Management. Parkinson Disease. Population Health.
Precision Oncology. Women's Health. Media Insights.
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It only takes a minute to sign up. Your argument for a is too strong showing that an upper bound exists would suffice. The problem with your argument is that a theorem cannot be proved by example, but can be proved false with one counterexample.
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Henricus V. Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook. Sign up using Email and Password. Post as a guest Name. Email Required, but never shown. Featured on Meta. Feedback post: New moderator reinstatement and appeal process revisions.Postintervention follow-up provides information regarding duration of the intervention effects and may reveal potential late effects of these antioxidants.
Objective: To analyze postintervention effects of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene on cancer incidence and total and cause-specific mortality. Design, setting, and participants: Postintervention follow-up assessment of cancer incidence and cause-specific mortality 6 years [May 1, April 30, ] and total mortality 8 years [May 1, April 30, ] of 25 men. In the ATBC Study, 29 male smokers aged 50 to 69 years received alpha-tocopherol 50 mgbeta-carotene 20 mgboth agents, or placebo daily for 5 to 8 years.
Cancer cases were confirmed through medical record review. Main outcome measures: Site-specific cancer incidence and total and cause-specific mortality and calendar time-specific risk for lung cancer incidence and total mortality. No late preventive effects on other cancers were observed for either supplement.
There were individuals who died by April 30,during the posttrial follow-up period; the RR was 1. Regarding duration of intervention effects and potential late effects, the excess risk for beta-carotene recipients was no longer evident 4 to 6 years after ending the intervention and was primarily due to cardiovascular diseases.
Conclusions: The beneficial and adverse effects of supplemental alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene disappeared during postintervention follow-up.
The preventive effects of alpha-tocopherol on prostate cancer require confirmation in other trials. Smokers should avoid beta-carotene supplementation.
Publication types Research Support, U. Gov't, P. Substances Antioxidants beta Carotene alpha-Tocopherol.Background: Antibodies that block programmed death 1 PD-1 protein improve survival in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer NSCLC but have not been tested in resectable NSCLC, a condition in which little progress has been made during the past decade.
Nivolumab at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram of body weight was administered intravenously every 2 weeks, with surgery planned approximately 4 weeks after the first dose. The primary end points of the study were safety and feasibility.
We also evaluated the tumor pathological response, expression of programmed death ligand 1 PD-L1mutational burden, and mutation-associated, neoantigen-specific T-cell responses. Results: Neoadjuvant nivolumab had an acceptable side-effect profile and was not associated with delays in surgery. Of the 21 tumors that were removed, 20 were completely resected. There was a significant correlation between the pathological response and the pretreatment tumor mutational burden.
The number of T-cell clones that were found in both the tumor and peripheral blood increased systemically after PD-1 blockade in eight of nine patients who were evaluated. Mutation-associated, neoantigen-specific T-cell clones from a primary tumor with a complete response on pathological assessment rapidly expanded in peripheral blood at 2 to 4 weeks after treatment; some of these clones were not detected before the administration of nivolumab.
The tumor mutational burden was predictive of the pathological response to PD-1 blockade. Treatment induced expansion of mutation-associated, neoantigen-specific T-cell clones in peripheral blood. Abstract Background: Antibodies that block programmed death 1 PD-1 protein improve survival in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer NSCLC but have not been tested in resectable NSCLC, a condition in which little progress has been made during the past decade. Associated data ClinicalTrials.